More than sixty languages are spoken in Pakistan, including a vast number of provincial languages as well. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan and English is the official language used in the Constitution and widely used by corporate businesses, the educated urban elite, and most universities.
Punjabi is spoken by over 60 million people, but has no official recognition in the country. The large majority of Pakistanis belong to the Indo-Aryan ethnic group although there are a substantial number of Iranian peoples and smaller numbers of Dravidians. These major ethnic groups are further broken down into several smaller ethnic groups - Punjabis (44.68) % of the population, Pashtuns (15.42%), Sindhis (14.1%), Seraikis (10.53%), Muhajirs (7.57%), Balochis (3.57%) and others (4.66%) such as Tajiks, Bengalis and many others.
The demographics of religion in Pakistan were significantly influenced in 1947 by the movement of Muslims to Pakistan, and Hindus and Sikhs to India. Census data indicates that 96% of the population is Muslims, of whom nearly 80% are Sunni Muslims and 19% are Shi'a Muslims. Pakistan has the second highest Shia population in the world, after Iran. The remainder comprises of Christians, Hindus, Jews, Sikhs, Parsis, Ahmadis, and Animists (mainly the Kalasha of Chitral). A few Buddhists are included in Pakistani statistics. As of 2005, over three million refugees (approximately 81.5% being ethnic Pashtuns remain in Pakistan as a result of the wars in Afghanistan, with 83% of these refugees reporting their intent to permanently settle in Pakistan.
The Pakistani Rupee (Urdu: روپیہ / ALA-LC: Rūpiyah; ISO code: PKR) is the official currency of Pakistan. The word rūpiya is derived from the Sanskrit word rūpya, which means "wrought silver, a coin of silver", in origin an adjective meaning "shapely", with a more specific meaning of "stamped, impressed", whence "coin".
It is` derived from the noun rūpa "shape, likeness, image". The Pakistani rupee was put into circulation in Pakistan after the dissolution of the British Raj in 1947. Initially, Pakistan used British Indian coins and notes simply over-stamped with "Pakistan". New coins and banknotes were issued in 1948. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the State Bank of Pakistan, the central bank of the country. The most commonly used symbol for the rupee is Rs, used on receipts when purchasing goods and services.
In Pakistan, the rupee is referred to as the "rupees", "rupaya" or "rupaye". As standard in Pakistani English, large values of rupees are counted in terms of thousands, lakh (100 thousand) and crore (10 million), 1 Arab (1 billion), 1 Kharab (1/10 trillion), 100 Kharab. Aside from coins valuing Rs.1, Rs. 2 and Rs. 5, Pakistani paper currency is available in denominations of Rs. 10, Rs. 20, Rs. 50, Rs. 100, Rs. 500, Rs. 1000 and Rs. 5000 respectively.